Romans 5:12 Sin entered the world through one man, and death through sin, and in this way death came to ALL people, because ALL sinned.
5:14 Adam is a pattern of the one to come.
5:15 For if the many died by the trespass of one man, how much more did God’s grace and the gift that came by the grace of the one man, Jesus Christ, overflow to the many [many = multitudes / masses].
5:17 For if, by the trespass of the one man, death reigned through that one man, how much more will those who receive God’s abundant provision of grace and of the gift of righteousness reign in life through the one man, Jesus Christ.
5:18 Consequently, just as one trespass resulted in condemnation for ALL people, so also one righteousness act resulted in justification and life for ALL people.
5:19 For just as through the disobedience of one man, the many were made sinners, so also through the obedience of one man the many will be made righteous!
What Adam did affected the entire human race. He sinned and we all became sinners. Every Christian believes in universal condemnation and universal death. Everyone knows that 100% of people die. Romans 5 says that if Adam is a pattern or type of Jesus. If Adam’s one sin had a universal impact on the human race how much more does Jesus’ righteous act have a universal impact on the human race?!
Don’t be confused by the use of the words “the many.” As I wrote above, the many means the masses or multitudes. It is used interchangeably for the word “all” which is also used several times in this passage. They mean the same thing. If Adam’s sin brought death to ALL then Jesus is how much more capable of giving “zoe” life to ALL!
Now, a lot of Christians will say: “But you’ve got to have faith.” This only applies to the “all” who have put faith in Jesus. Yes, that is true. Paul says it himself, Romans 1:16 I am not ashamed of the Gospel because it is the power of God that brings salvation to everyone who believes: first to the Jew, then to the Gentile.
But didn’t Paul also say that “ALL have sinned and fallen short of the glory of God” Romans 3:23 and we accept this as a universal “all” and then we see again in Romans 5 that through one man, all received condemnation and death. So if ALL receive death through Adam and ALL receive life through Jesus (5:18) then Paul is saying that ALL WILL come to faith!
Let me show you:
Romans 11:25-26 Israel [the Jews] has/have experienced a hardening in part until the FULL number of Gentiles have come in and in this way ALL Israel will be saved!
Didn’t Paul say in chapter 1 that God provided salvation first for the Jew and then for Gentile? Now he is saying that ALL the Jews are saved, but not until the full number of the Gentiles! And the full number of the Gentiles means the same as the full number of the Jews, which clearly means ALL, the many, the multitudes, the masses. These phrases are used repeatedly to emphasise the same thing. God will bring all Jews and all Gentiles to faith.
How? Romans 11:11 Salvation has come to the Gentiles to make Israel envious. So the Gentiles start coming to faith, and the Jews get jealous and come to faith as well! And we know this applies to ALL because Paul said it in Romans 5 and Romans 11.
Romans 11:32 For God has bound EVERYONE over to disobedience so that he may have mercy on them ALL!!!
Paul follows this statement with a powerful cry of worship:
11:33 Oh the depth of the riches of the wisdom and knowledge of God! How unsearchable his judgements, and his paths beyond tracing out.
11:36 For from him and through him and for him are ALL things!
To God be the Glory forever! Amen!